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As “Caucasian unit” had already informed, on May 21 in Nalchik a meeting of the organization "Circassian congress" took place. The meeting’s participants sounded ambiguous approaches to the forthcoming celebrating of the 450th anniversary of Kabarda’s voluntary integration into structure of Russia. Caucasian unit” correspondent interviewed the leader of the movement "Circassian congress" Ruslan Keshev.

- Approving that 450 years ago not a voluntary integration of Kabarda into structure of the Russian state, and the military-political union between Russian king Ivan Grozny and p Kabardian prince Temriuk Idarov was sighed, you want to tell that then the union of the two equal in their rights governors took place. Isn’t it?

- Your question mentions at once some aspects of the mutually connected problems. First, the myths about "voluntary connection" Kabarda, or even the whole Circassia, to Russia in middle of the XVI century, appeared in the Soviet historiography only in the middle of the XX century.

Secondly, even the Russian Empire considered the date of Kabarda’s integration with Russia 1774, and for Western Circassia - 1829, when it was made appropriate agreements with Turkey.

But those agreements with Turkey, as they expressed in St. Petersburg, "were just a letter, which черкесы did not want to know" – it meant that Turkey "never won Circassia by force of its weapon, and did not buy it for gold", and, accordingly, "could not, - according Carl Marx’s expression, - concede to Russia what it did not own itself". Figuratively speaking, it was a criminal arrangement of the two behind the back of the third about his destiny.

Naturally, Circassia had a full right to defend its independence, and its struggle proceeded for 101 years. Therefore, speaking about association of Circassia’s territory with the Russian Empire, we should operate not with the dates of signing of the arrangements between the empires, and the date of its final conquering: 1827 for Kabarda, and 1864 - for Western Circassia.

We do not connect in any way signing of the military-political union to the hierarchical statuses of Ivan Grozny and Temriuk Idarov. The military-political aspect, first of all, is important for us. It is necessary to remind that for the Moscow Empire of the middle of the XVI century the main danger was represented by the Crimean Khanate. Ivan Grozny’s father - Vasily III, recognized himself as a tributer of the Crimean khan. Crimean warriors burnt Moscow even in the time of Ivan Grozny. The problem of finding of an ally against Crimea was rather urgent for Russia then.

Taking into account the sizes, great population and military potential of Circassia in that time, signing of Russian-Circassian military-political union and marriage of the Russian king with Circassian woman was a rather logical step. It is known that before that marriage with Guasheney (Maria) Idarova, Ivan Grozny wanted to marry Western-Circassian princess, but received refusal. Except for the powerful military potential of the new allies, he entered the circle of the monarchs, married Circassian women, among which Crimean khan also was. It was the very successful political decision of Ivan Grozny.

As to the statements, like if the marriage between Ivan Grozny and Maria Idarova testified "voluntary association" of Circassia in the structure of Russia, that, following the same logic, it is necessary to recognize that the marriage of German Ekaterina II with Peter III was "voluntary integration" of Germany with Russia. By the way, such analogy will be totally complete, if we take into account the feudal dissociation of Germany and Circassia.

As if to the hierarchical status of Russian kings and Circassian princes, as it is known, in the Middle Ages they rather scrupulously concerned to marriages among the regal persons - hardly a marriage would appear to be possible at the significant difference in the class status of a young couple.

As it is known, after that Maria’s relatives were called in Russia Cherkassky dukes. After Ivan Grozny’s death the Rurik dynasty was stopped, the Russian throne passed to the nearest Cherkasskys relatives – the Romanovs. Thus the Cherkasskys were considered nobler, than the Romanovs.

Ivan Borisovich Cherkassky after Philaret’s death during ten years was the actual ruler of Russia. The next fact is also important: the Romanovs and the Cherkasskys even had common vault - Novospassky monastery in the Kremlin. In other words, the hierarchical status of Adygeyan kin of Temriuk was high enough, and Russia admitted that.

- What is the basic difference between a voluntary association and military-political union? Why is the difference of these two concepts so important for you?

- The difference of these concepts is important not only for us is – that the basic distinction. I shall answer your question with a question: as it is known, between the USSR and the USA during the Second world war the military-political union existed. Is that union should be regarded as the USSR’s voluntary integration with the USA? Is the difference of these two concepts so important?

- You declare that it is necessary to solve questions of Circassians’ repatriation to the historical native land. Meanwhile, we know that not all Circassians are ready and want to return.

- Circassian people appeared in foreign lands not as a result of some labour emigration, and not in its searches for the best life - it appeared there in result of the genocide, committed by the Russian Empire. Accordingly, modern Russian Federation that voluntary announced itself the assignee of the USSR and the Russian state, having such responsibility for barbarous crimes of the Empire, should solve this problem.

Russian Federation, having recognized the fact of the genocide, should create conditions for Circassians’ returning home and, thus, to supply the right of Circassian people on its national unity within the framework of its historical territory. And solving of the question - how and when to come back after adoption of appropriate official decisions and state programs - is the prerogative of Circassians.

We may name as a example the case of returning home of Circassians from Косово, carried out with the direct support of the President of Russia Boris Eltsin and the prime minister Sergey Kirienko.

- Don’t you think your position is rather non-constructive? Maybe it would be better to go forward instead of looking back, and to develop the economy of republic, to prevent the youth, including Kabardian from moving to other regions and settling there?

- Partly we could understand the appeals to look only forward, when the problem became a part of the history. But in the case with Circassians the 143-year's old event is not just a history. That is the factor which determined existence of the modern, absolutely abnormal state of affairs, when quantity of our Diaspora, formed in result of the genocide, almost in ten (!) times exceeds the quantity of Circassians, stayed on their native Land. In its absolute size, from all the peoples of Russia, Circassian Diaspora has the second place, after the Russian one. Could such state of affairs be ignored, especially at presence of a great percent of the wishing to find the Native land again?

As to the problems of economic development of the republic, the labour migration out of its limits, that is a great problem, certainly, demanding solving. But I do not think that the problems of restoration of the historical justice in relation to Circassian people and development of economy of KBR should be opposed each other.

- What are the purposes of organization "Circassian Congress"? How many supporters do you have?

- Certainly, the greatest problem, the greatest obstacle for the forward development of Circassian people is its present divided status. Circassians have such wish: "Let Circassians be united". But certainly, it is not less important to keep and multiply what makes our people Circassians: that is all-round revival of the spiritual, socio economic, political bases of the national institute "Adyghe Khabza", its base values; restoration of the national customs, traditions, holidays. We must keep, develop and protect Circassian (Adygeyan) language, culture, objects of Circassian national property.

As to the structure of "Circassian congress", it is a network of independent organizations existing in many countries all over the world, integrated with common purposes and tasks, and coordinating their activities.

We are not a public organization, we represent the public movement. Therefore membership in other parties or other movements is not an obstacle for participation in our movement. We consider as our supporters everyone, who shares our purposes and tasks.


Опубликовал administrator, 24-05-2007, 15:43. Просмотров: 865
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