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Since the last spring representatives of the republican public said about that at disposal of the management of Adygeya there had been an official reply of the Institute of the Russian history of the Russian academy of sciences (RAS) concerned the Adygeyan-Russian relations during the XVI-XVIII centuries. They asked to give them its x-copy not once, but invariably received refusal. "Make a query by yourself", - they were answered.

And on September 2 by assistance of other persons it was handed to “Caucasian unit” correspondent. The full name of the document is "About circumstances of the Adygeyan-Russian relations in the XVI-XVIII centuries. Legitimacy of the dating of Adygeya’s (Circassia’s) voluntary association with Russia in the middle of the XVI century". It was signed by the doctor of historical degree V.V. Trepalov.

In the document he wrote about "the allied relations", as in due time it had been offered to treat that fact by the public, but not about voluntary association of the territories. However, despite of presence of that document at disposal of Adygeya Government, and probably, of the Government of Russian Federation, preparation for the celebrating in the republic and Moscow proceeds.

"Active political communications among princedoms of Northern Caucasus and Russia appeared in the middle of the XVI century, - it was remarked in the reply. – According to diplomatic orders used then, those relations were confirmed with special agreements ("sherts") rather often and were accompanied with assurances of corresponding citizenship ("holopstvo"). However in those times notions about citizenship, protection, suzerainty and so on at times appeared to be rather conditional. As that could be proved not only by the Caucasian materials, but also Siberian, Kalmyk, etc “citizenship", declared on the basis of the "shert" agreements, should be analyzed with very serious estimation. The two hundred year's epopee of the repeated "sherting" of Adygeyan, Dagestan, Georgian and other lords to the Russian kings confirms that feature of the international relations of the Late Middle ages.

Caucasianists defined for a long time it, and the majority of the historians is completely not inclined to perceive literally concluding then alliances as Adygs’ transition to the citizenship of the Russian "white tsar". They are interpreted as a result of concurrences of the interests of the local ruling elite and the Russian authorities, as a proof of the political union directed against the third forces - neighbouring countries, struggling for Caucasus. The manoeuvering among Persia, Turkey and Russia frequently made a basis of the foreign policy of the local governors. A result of such manoeuvering there was periodically arising in Caucasus "general holopstvo" - recognition of subordination simultaneously both to a Russian tsar and a Persian shah or an Ottoman sultan.

Besides the numerous arrangements about "staying under tsar’s high hand" cannot be considered as obligations accepted forever (despite of the appropriate expressions in the official documents). "Sherts" were not equivalent to interstate pacts of the new time at all; they were personal agreements of the governors and lost their juridical force after leaving authority of one of them, so they had to be periodically updated.

In the middle of the XVI century, simultaneously with Ivan’s IV conquering of Kazanian and Astrakhanian khanates and getting by the Moscow state an exit to Caspian Sea, the friendly communications of Moscow with some Adygeyan lords were established. In 1552, 1555, 1557 Ivan Grozny received embassies from Kabarda and from western (Trance-Kuban) Adygs with request to get citizenship, about help against expansion of the Crimean khans and in struggle against Kazikumuh (Dagestan) shamhal (lord).

But about connection of the Northern-Caucasian territories to Russia during that period it was still early to speak: the Russian boundaries were too remote then. It only appeared to be the beginning of their rapprochement. And, if Kabarda since then was fully under the Russian influence, the western Adygs for some years recognized suzerainty of the Crimean khan and the Ottoman sultan, which for a long time had interrupted their communications with Russia (practically up to the end of the XVIII century).

In the XVIII century the open military opposition of Russia and Turkey took place. Adygs had to choose between the two contenders, announcing about their fidelity to one, or the other party. In St. Petersburg they did not exaggerate the degree of their submission and did not consider them as citizens of their empire at all. Taking into account their military potential, Adygs were looked first of all as an instrument of the geopolitical activities, which meant - as at traditionally loyal, but external force.

The official bases for distribution of jurisdiction of Russia in Northern Caucasus happened only in the XVIII century, after Kuchuk-Kajnadjik (1774) and Jassky (1791) Russian-Turkish peace treatments, and the real authority of the empire was fixed into the region only in the next century. Accordingly, the conducting role of Russia in the historical fate of the local peoples becomes appreciable not earlier than that period. The final connection of the Northwest Caucasus to the Russian empire we are inclined to connect to the ending of the Caucasian war in the first half of 1860.

Hence, transformation of Adygeya into a territorial component of Russia appeared to be a long process. The course of that process was actually determined not by the agreements of the XVI century, and the gradual development of Russian statehood, military and diplomatic success of Russia, its territorial expansion in Caucasus.

Strictly speaking, any connection or "voluntary association" of Adygs into the structure of Russia in the middle of the XVI century had not taken place. Appeared in the last years in the regional Caucasusology formulation "military-political union", in our opinion, reflects the character of the Adygeyan-Russian relations lasted up to the end of the XVIII century much more adequately, though it is conditional and requires explanatories, too. All the same such union could be possible between partners comparable in the military power and the economic resources; besides the hierarchical rank of the Russian monarchs was much higher than the status of Adygeyan leaders.

Thus, we believe that 450 years ago not connection of Adygeya to Russia, and establishment between them of the allied relations took place".


Опубликовал administrator, 3-09-2007, 19:46. Просмотров: 763
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