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Islamic roots

A number of ancient Adygeyan traditions, and linguistic analysis of Adygeyan language specify that Adygs in the antiquity had a monotheistic religion.

Any one familiar in the slightest degree with Islam and the Adygeyan etiquette – Adyghe Khabze - at the first sight catches their amazing similarity. As Islam, Adyghe Khabze adjusted the entire human life - from his birth to his death. Ethical and moral standards of the Adygeyan etiquette almost in every thing are identical with Islamic ethics and morals. There are both unsurpassed hospitality, generosity, moderation, and reverence to seniors, parents and relatives and interdiction on malignant gossip, conceit and boasting, and so on. It is possible to list many items in which the Adygeyan law, formed in the most ancient times, coincides with requirements of Islam. We would like to stop on the most important thing.

The basis of humanity in Adygag’a consists of the idea of soul’s saving through boon – psapa. That’s from where extraordinary high importance - some kind of cult - of kind activities that is completely similar to Islam comes from. We shall pay attention to that the word "psapa", translated usually into Russian as "boon", "kind", "kind act", actually comprises the deeper theological meaning and directly specifies its accessory to Islamic lexicon. "Psapa" is a two-complex word, which one part is "psa" - "soul", and the second "pa" - "ahead"; together that sounds literally as: "(going) ahead of soul" and is completely conformed to Koran: "Let each soul will look at what it has prepared forward for itself on Dominical Court day", that is - for the future life. In only this short Adygeyan word the concepts concerning eternal life, influence on it of acts of man are integrated.

The same we can tell about the word “psak’od” translated usually into Russian, as a sin, evil, injustice. It is a two-complex word consisting of "psa" - "soul" and "k’od" - "annihilation", that together we can translate literally as: "which ruins soul" or "annihilation of soul".

"Psa", the part of the both words, is the most ancient Adygeyan word meaning "soul" –not material concept. And when Adygs designate with these words some actions, they automatically, consciousness or subconsciousness transfer their result into the other, eternal world where this or that act, action or an idea are always reflected.

It is known that pre-Adygeyan language - Hettian - is recognized by scientists all over the world as the most ancient language. That means that in the farthest antiquity Adygs’ ancestors knew about influence on soul of acts and ideas, and they knew about the everlasting world.

Words "psak’od" and "psapa" are unacceptable to not-Islamic, for example, for Christian outlook, in conformity with which soul will not be responsible for its sins as according to the Christian doctrine in expiation of sins of the mankind Jesus suffered and everyone who believed in that, should be saved. The idea of blessing for the sake of the everlasting world in that case is not meaningful. These words do not fit in any other doctrine according to which there is no life after death, so there is no concept of future life, while as "psa" means "soul" is not material concept, concerning to the eternal world. These words are comprehensible only to Moslems who believe in the second, eternal life, in requital for their acts in the everlasting humankind and their personal responsibility for their activities.

In the exclamation "Ah, si Tkh’a zak’u" ("Oh, my one and only Lord") they emphasize singleness of God. And in fact this exclamation is still could be found in the Nart epos, recognized as the most ancient in the world!

Islam always existed

Obviously, the Islamic mentality, the Islamic culture subsequently expressed in "Adyghag’a" with later pagan stratifications were formed among Adygs under influence of early prophets’ doctrines - before Prophet Muhammad (let Allah will bless and welcomes him) who brought the final Islam, and before sending to Earth of Torahs and Gospel.

For that the statement or the assumption that ancestors of Adygs were monotheists, or Moslems, before sending of Torahs, Gospel and Koran would not sound to some people absurdly, we shall explain that from the historical point of view Islam appeared in the VII century, as from the theological - in the days of prophet Ibrahim (who had lived before sending of Torahs) and even earlier. In fact theologically all the prophets God sent in various times to different peoples, as a matter of fact were brining Islam. The word "Islam" has no anything in common with any people or nation (compare it to Judaist religion, named by the name of the Judaic people), or with any prophet (compare it to Christianity named by prophet Jesus Christ). By the way, the word “Christ” which is perceived by many people as his surname, peace upon him, actually meant in ancient Greek - "Messiah", that is, a prophet sent with some certain mission. "Islam" is meant in Arabic "obedience" (to the God’s will), as a Moslem – is " a man obeyed to the will of God". Therefore, all the prophets come before Muhammad were as a matter of fact Moslems, (if to judge with this word’s meaning) and all of them professed the same religion of Allah and called for one - to worship the Only God - Allah. But the peoples to which those prophets were sent, subsequently were deforming the faith and turning away from Islam, or from obedience to the Only God as they tended to worship idols and far-fetched deities, perverted their religion. Then the last prophet Muhammad was sent, let Allah will bless and welcomes him, and he had brought the final Islam.

Therefore, there is nothing surprising that Adygs, most likely, even before prophet Muhammad’s arrival adhered monotheism, and so they were Moslems. But through which prophet Adygs’ ancestors could find Truth?

Sons of prophet Nuh

Adygs have 5-10 thousand-year history and one of the richest ethno-cultural traditions originating of the well-known Hett Empire, prospered in Asia Minor (Anatolia) on the territory of present Turkey in 4-3 millenia B.C. They played an outstanding role in the world history. The Hett Empire invaded extensive territories, from the South of Caucasus up to the North of Syria, Bagdad, Basra, Trebizond, Arzrum. Hetts founded the majority of cities-states in Asia Minor of 3-2 millenia B.C.

Ancestors of Adygs - Hetts - were sons of prophet Nuh (Noah - by the bible tradition). One of his sons was named Ham. The son of Ham was Canaan. Canaan had son Sidon whose first-born son was Hett. (Bible, "Life", ch. 10:1, 6, 15).

As we know from Koran, Nuh, peace upon him, was Allah’s prophet who was calling people to monotheism (to Islam) for many years. When his people had not heeded his appeal, Nuh and all believers were saved; the others drowned in the Flood. So after the Flood the saved with Nuh believers lived under laws of Islam - that is, they were monotheists, Moslems, (if to take in attention the meaning of this word - "obeyed to the will of the God"). Hett, by Torah, was Nuh’s grandson just in the fourth generation and he still had fresh memories about the destiny of the unbelievers who had not followed the Law of Allah. He appeared to live under the instructions of prophet Nuh - his grandfather. However in due course people again began to go away from pure monotheistic religion, falling up to worship idols and far-fetched deities. But in all times there were people who worshipped one only God, the people gravitating to the just way of life. Such people were named hanifs. And Ibrahim (Abraham - in Bible) was one of those just hanifs.

In Palestine together with prophet Ibrahim

We find in Torah indication that originally (before resettlement in Anatolia) Hetts lived in territory of present Palestine. An ancient map testifies that about ten cities belonged to them there. Hetts were mentioned in Torah alongside with prophet Ibrahim’s narration who had lived before sending Torahs and Gospel. Ibrahim was not a Hett, (many researchers consider that he was, more likely, a Chaldean) but he lived a long time in the country of Hetts. There on the lands of Hetts he and his wife Sarra were buried. From the sacred Koran we know that the people of Ibrahim, and his parents were pagans, therefore Ibrahim was compelled to leave them and his native land and to move to Hetts. But could he do that if there were no among Hetts his adherents who supported him and his monotheistic religion?

As it is known, Torah, being the book of true, sent to prophet Mussa, later lost its authenticity. Some parts of the book were changed. Everything the prophets sent to the sons of Israel after prophet Mussa informed about, shared the same fate, and was deformed. And this feature of the "changed" Torah forces us to look at it like at historical book, rather than at the book of true. At the same time, some parts of it coincide with Koran and with history. We shall pay attention to one episode of Torah, without attempt to judge which part it concerns - deformed or not deformed. That is how Torah narrates the dialogue of just Ibrahim with Hetts in connection with Sarra’s death:

" And Abraham departed from died of his, and spoke to the sons of Hett, and told:

I am a newcomer and a settler among you: give me in property a place for a coffin among you for me to bury died of mine away from eyes of mine."

The sons of Hett answered Abraham and told:

"Listen to us, master of ours; you are the prince of God amongst us; in best of our funeral places bury died of yours; anybody of us will not rejected you in a funeral place for burial died of yours". ("Life", chapter 22: 3-12.). Further in the same fragment it is described, how Ibrahim asked the chief of Hetts to sell him a cave he liked for burial of his wife. "Efron was sitting amongst the sons of Hett; Efron-the-Hettian answered Abraham aloud sons of Hett, all entering the gates of city of his and told:

"No, my master, listen to me: I give you a field and a cave on it, give you, before the eyes of the sons of my people, I give you that; bury died of yours.

Abraham bowed to the people of that land…"("Life", chapter 22: 3-12.).

In this very touching scene of the dialogue of Ibrahim with Hetts we see display of attention, sympathy, compassion and extreme humanity of Hetts towards Ibrahim, who got in the heavy position. But what especially causes our interest is the reference of Hetts to Ibrahim: "Listen to us, master of ours. You are the prince of God amongst us..." Ibrahim was a stranger among Hetts; he had not rights even for a plot of land for burial place for his wife; however he was addressed "Master", "the prince of God". Aren’t there their respect shown to the prophet of God and the direct recognition of the prophetical mission of prophet Ibrahim, the recognition of his monotheistic religion - Islam? And in fact that had happened several thousand years before sending of Koran and prophet Muhammad’s arrival!

It is necessary to note that the mentioned episode in Torah is inconsistent as Hetts for that period of their residing in Canaan (Palestine) along with prophet Ibrahim, were described as pagans.

Torah informed about Hetts, lived in Palestine with related peoples in the days of prophet Mussa, (Moses) peace upon him. It should be also noted that the land of Canaan or the country of Canaan was named by the grandfather of Hett - the ancestor of the people of Hetts. Then the territory of that land was much more extensive than present Palestine and included lands of neighboring states. This part of Torah describing the events happened in Canaan in the days of Moses, coincides almost in everything with descriptions in Koran. After Mussa (peace upon him) had deduced the people of Israel out from the Egyptian slavery, Allah ordered him to lead his people in the Sacred land of Canaan (Palestine). But because of the fear before Hetts lived there, they refused to settle there.

(Recollect, how) Mussa told the people:

"Oh, my people! Step on the sacred land that God intended for you, (in disgrace) do not address back not to doom yourselves to heavy loss":

But they said:

" Oh, Mussa! On this land the people is tall. We never shall step on it while they do not leave. And if they leave the land, we shall settle it immediately" (Koran, 5:20, 21). Also they answered Mussa to his appeal: "You and your Lord go and battle together there, as we shall sit here and wait!" (Koran, 5:24). For disobedience to Allah’s order, the people of Mussa was punished and disseminated in a desert for long forty years. "…God answered (Mussa): For forty (long) years it will be forbidden to them. They are to wander homeless on earth. You do not grieve over this malicious people". (Koran, 5:24, 26.).

And here are some narrations of these events in Bible:

"Also Moses sent them to notice for the land of Canaan… and, having noticed for the land…, they told him..: people living in that land, is strong, and the cities are strengthened and rather huge; and the sons of Enako we saw there." "Amalyk lives on the southern part of the land; Hetteys, Ievuseys and Amoreys live on the mountain; Chananeys live at the sea and on coast of Jordan. We saw there the sons of Enako - of the giant kin; and we were in opinion of ours before them as a locust, as we were the same in opinion of them". (Bible, Numbers, 13, 18, 30, 34). "The whole society made a cry, and the people cried all night long. And all the sons of Israel grumbled on Moses, and on Aaron, and all society told them: oh, if we have died in the land of Egypt or died in this desert! For what the Lord treats us in this land to have us fallen under sword?.." (Numbers, 14:1-3).

Refusal of the sons of Israel to execute the order of God and His prophet had drawn Divine Anger upon this people: "they will not see the land I with my swear promised their fathers; every one who irritated Me will not see it…, and your corpses will fall in this desert. And the sons of yours will wander in the desert forty years, and will bear punishment for wrongdoing of yours, until all your bodies in the desert are not lost. Under the number of forty days in which you observed the land, you will incur punishment for sins of yours for forty years…" (Bible, Numbers, 14:23, 32, 33, 34).

We should pay attention to that inhabitants of Canaan together with Hetts in Torah were named "The sons of Enako of a giant kin". That is both in Koran and in Torah it is proved to be true that inhabitants of Canaan were giants. We shall recollect in this connection Adygeyan giants – Narts who became famous to the whole world owing to the epos "Narts".

But who was Enako whose sons were inhabitants of Canaan? In fact as far as we know, Canaan was occupied by the sons of Canaan: "From Canaan Sidon was born (his first-born Hett), Ievusey, Amorey, Gergesey, Evey, Arkey, Syney, Ardvadey, Tsemarey and Hymafey. Subsequently the tribes of Canaan dissipated". ("Life", ch. 10, 15, 18.) And among these names there is no name Enako. So it follows that "Enako" mentioned in Torah was a common noun and nothing else but a transcription of Adygeyan word "Enyk’o" that can be literally translated as "the son of a giant", "the son of a huge man". That in accuracy coincides with the explanatory given by Torah: "the sons of a giant kin".

The period of Hetts’ residing in Palestine in the days of prophet Mussa, is also described in Torah as pagan. But it would be more logical to assume that in the days of prophet Ibrahim, Hetts - at least, some of them - were monotheists, and in the days of prophet Mussa they were already totally pagans, and for that they were deprived of honor of residing in the Sacred city.

Rare example of constancy

In the work "Traveling around Caucasus" F.Dubua, speaking about high traditional culture of Adygs, mentioned in details stability of Adygeyan customs developed and affirmed during many centuries and millenia. "Tribes of Caucasus, - the author wrote, - represent usually rare example of constancy with which some people keep their ancient customs. None of primitive tribes is more true to its antique customs than Circassian". Probably, owing to this fidelity to the ancient customs Adygs appeared to be manage to carry through the centuries and millenia their mentality of monotheist - person obeyed to the will of God (literally - Moslem). At different stages of history this mentality, this law sometimes appeared above its carriers - Adygs - who deviated during different periods of time from monotheistic religion and declined or were declined to paganism and to alien creeds. But, eventually, through the turn of disasters and ordeals, Almighty Allah had returned Adygs on the true way - after prophet Muhammad’s arrival, let Allah will bless and welcomes him. Returning of Islam to Adygs was facilitated by the fact that it corresponded almost in everything to spirit and mentality of Adyg, despite of many centuries of wanderings in the darkness of paganism and turning away from the faith.

R. Abdallahov, newspaper "Light of Truth"

Опубликовал administrator, 6-11-2005, 13:15. Просмотров: 990
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