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Circassians stated again - Russia should recognize GenocideCircassians stated again - Russia should recognize Genocide

For the President of the Russian Federation Putin V.V.
For the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation


Dear Vladimir Vladimirovich!

Dear deputies of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation!


Over the past two decades under conditions of democratic processes development in the Russian Federation, the Russian and international Circassian community has repeatedly raised before the government of our country problems of the Circassian people, the solving of which are fully under the exclusive competence of the government authorities of the Russian Federation.

We call again the President of the Russian Federation and the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation once more to consider the complex of problems presented by us and to make in connection with our appeal legal and political solution.

The Adyghes (the Circassians) - indigenous people of the North-West Caucasus, whose ethnogenesis began in the Early Bronze Age in the IV century B.C. and whose history is closely linked with the history of the Russian people since the X century B.C.

According to the adopted during the Soviet times ethnonymic and administrative list of names and in accordance with the highest settlement enclaves, the Adyghes are known as the Adygeis (the Adyghe population of the Republic of Adygea), the Circassian (the Adyghe population of Karachay-Cherkessia and Uspensky district of Krasnodar region), the Kabardians (the Adyghe population of Kabardino-Balkaria ) Mozdok Kabardian (the Adyghe population of North Ossetia) and the Black Sea Adyghes-Shapsugs of Tuapse region and the Greater Sochi.

In the history of the Adyghes, the main historical period is the age-old heroic resistance to the aggression of the Russian Empire in 1763 - 1864, which ended with complete destruction of the Adyghe Country - Circassia. The annexed Circassian territories became part of Kuban region, the Black Sea province, Terek region. The name “Circassia” was excluded from the official turnover until the Revolution in 1917.

Thus, the Caucasian war not only led to terrible loss of life, but also to an almost complete change in the ethnic composition of the population of historical Circassia, once the most important country with respect to the territory and population of the Caucasus. It is hard to find on the territory of Eurasia an example of such "ethnic cleansing", which would crown one of the many military conflicts of XIX - XX centuries. For its long history the Russian Empire have not behaved toward any of its military opponents with such unrelenting cruelty as toward the Adyghes (the Circassians).

Over the past two decades, the Adyghe people are seeking for recognition by the Russian leadership of the genocide committed by the Russian Empire during the conquest of Circassia (Northwest Caucasus). The recognition by the modern Russian State and Assembly of the Circassian (Adyghe) genocide is perceived by the Adyghes first of all as a triumph of historical justice, as well as a fundamental human moral act on the basis of which the comprehensive rehabilitation of people scattered around the world is possible.

The problem of recognition of the genocide of the Circassians (the Adyghes) was actively discussed in the USSR and the Russian Federation on various scientific and public forums of regional and Russian (as well as the All-Union) levels since the 80s. of the last century.

As a result of extensive research and public discussion, the Supreme Soviet of the Kabardino-Balkar SSR adopted a resolution on February 7, 1992 N 977-XII-B "On the condemnation of genocide of the Adyghes (the Circassians) during the Russian-Caucasian war." This resolution was readmitted in 1994.

Due to the numerous appeals to the government regarding this problem, the appeal of the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin "To the Peoples of the Caucasus” was divulgated on May 18, 1994.

The political assessments of catastrophic consequences of the Caucasian war for a number of North Caucasian people were given in this appeal for the first time at the state level of the Russian Federation: "Echoes of the Caucasian War, which had been brought great human and material losses, is still a pain in the hearts of many Russians. Let rest in peace to those who fell on the field of battle, lost their life from the atrocities of war, and those who, after being forced to leave the motherland, died in exile, having experienced the bitterness of the loss of the motherland. Let the memory of those ancient tragic events be kept in the hearts of children, and serves as a warning to all of us from further tragedies".

The President of the Russian Federation described the Caucasus war as "a courageous struggle of the people of the Caucasus for survival on their own land". The Russian President said regarding the problem of repatriation of members of the North Caucasian diaspora: "The problems we inherited from the Caucasian War, and in particular the return of the descendants of the Caucasian settlers to their historical homeland, should be solved at the international level through negotiations involving all parties concerned".

In conclusion, the President of Russia expressed confidence that "the unity in building a democratic state, social and inter-ethnic harmony, civil peace would be a true guarantee that the dreams of the best representatives of Russia and the Caucasus for the welfare and prosperity of the people of our country will become a reality."

Unfortunately, the direction in resolving the complex of difficult problems associated with the need to overcome the negative effects of the Caucasian War and the expulsion of the people of the North-West Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire (mainly the Circassians - the Adyghes), defined by B.N. Yeltsin, has not yet been developed.

On April 29, 1996 was adopted the Appeal of the President of the Republic of Adygea and the State Council-Hase of the Republic of Adygea to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation for the official recognition of the Adyghe (Circassian) people genocide during the Caucasian War.

The urgent need for public recognition of the Adyghe (Circassian) people genocide is emphasized in this appeal:

"On May 21, 1994 it was 130 years since the end of the Caucasian War - the most tragic pages in the history of the Adyghe (Circassian) people ... The tragedy of the people is not merely limited to the horrors of war. The deportation of 90% of the Adyghe (Circassian) people after the end of hostilities was one of the forms and the continuation of genocide as the deprivation of a natural people's living environment, migration to the Ottoman Empire and the living conditions on this territory turned into new numerous victims among the Exiles, the witnesses of their suffering can not speak about seen without shudder.

The current generation of the Adyghes (Circassians) is sympathetic to the events of those years. As the Caucasian land became one mass grave for hundreds of thousands of mountaineers, and hundreds of thousands of ordinary Russian soldiers dying for alien interests of highest rulers. The tears and the hearts of the mothers were equally bitter and inconsolable in the Caucasus and Russia.

However, people's memory can not erase such the events. Moreover, the echo of the tragedy of the last century speaks of fates of compatriots scattered in exile, having the status of aboriginal people, depending on the changing loyalty of governments and historical upheavals in their countries of residence. Feelings and experiences of Adyghe (Circassian) exiles can be understood more easily with examples of how millions of Russian compatriots, suddenly found themselves beyond the borders of the motherland, suffer from humiliation of honor and dignity, violation of civic, political, and cultural rights, how they are the subject of persecution under national and confessional lines.

The principles of humanism and a tribute to ashes of the innocent victims require recognition and condemnation of the genocide of the Adyghe (Circassian) people committed by tsarist autocracy during the Caucasian War and consequently its effects.

Only the corresponding moral assessment of the highest representative body of the state, as well as the adoption of normative legal act, which vests the right to the deported descendant to freely return to their motherland, and the provision of state support to returnees, can become the basis for prevailing historical justice with respect to the Adyghe (Circassian) people, an integral component of a unified multi-ethnic Russian state, will serve to strengthen the sincere trust and mutual understanding between the people of the Republic of Adygea, the Russian Federation in whole.”

Thus, the recognition by the Russian Federation of the genocide of the Adyghes (the Circassians) committed by the Russian Empire has acquired a kind of legal shape as the parliaments of two republics as part of Russia, it should be emphasized, the federal state, took appropriate decisions.

After the Adyghes (the Circassians), the second-largest ethnic body of the Northwest Caucasus until 1864 is the Abkhaz-Abaza. Proportionally it suffered the same loss as the Adyghes.

Naturally, in this connection, that the Resolution of the National Assembly - the Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia "On the deportation of the Abkhazians (Abaza) in the XIX century" was adopted on October 15, 1997. The parliament of Abkhazia has declared in its resolution as follows:

"Giving the historical, political and legal assessment of fatal for the Abkhazians (Abaza) people events of the XIX century, the People's Assembly of the Republic of Abkhazia resolves:

1. To recognize the mass extermination and exile of the Abkhazians (Abaza) in the XIX century to the Ottoman Empire as genocide - the gravest crime against humanity.

2. To recognize under the Convention of the UN General Assembly dated 28 July 1951 the deported Abkhazians (Abaza) in the XIX century as the refugees.

3. To recognize the inviolable right to free and unimpeded return of the descendants of the deported Abkhazians (Abaza) in the XIX century to their historic motherland.

4. To appeal to the UN, OSCE, CIS and other international organizations, the Russian state as a legal successor of the Russian Empire and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, with the request to provide the necessary political, financial and humanitarian assistance to smooth the process of voluntary repatriation and integration of the descendants of the deported Abkhazians (Abaza) in the XIX century.

"In these conditions, ignoring the obvious historical fact, genocide of the Adyghes (the Circassians) by the Russian Empire in the XIX century, has created a space for excessive politicization and apparently quite legitimate resolutions of the parliaments of foreign countries on recognizing the genocide of the Circassians (the Adyghes).

Despite the obvious political motivation of the resolution of the Parliament of Georgia dated May 20, 2011 "On recognition of the genocide of Circassians by the Russian Empire during the Caucasian War", in our opinion, the resolution of the Georgian parliament is faultless, and the decision itself historic from a legal, political and moral point of view. The fact that the first independent nation, which has recognized the Circassian genocide, is the state of the Caucasus, gives this an even greater value.

In addition, international organizations, institutions and independent historians will inevitably analyze the existing problems of the Circassian communities in Turkey, the countries of the Middle East, the United States and Western Europe as the century-long tragic epic of the unfortunate people who has been first the subject of extermination of many years on the motherland, and then the ruthless exile to the foreign land. This cliché becomes steady one as through the research of a number of Western intellectuals, so, mainly due to short-sighted position demonstrated by the authorities of our country.

Also we would make a note that in modern Russian history, there is positive experience of the recognition of the genocide committed over its peoples in the past in our country. In particular, the Law of the RSFSR dated April 26, 1991 N 1107-I «On the rehabilitation of repressed nations", according to which the deportations of North Caucasian and other nations in the Stalin era have been recognized the acts of genocide. The fast and comprehensive rehabilitation of the affected Russian ethnic groups occurred on this fundamental and accurate assessment, and the range of problems is fully depoliticized.

First of all, the recognition of the Adyghes (Circassians) genocide is the universal, moral act aimed at the foundation of truth, justice and providing understanding and cooperation between the state and the Adyghe people living in the Caucasus, as well as a multi-million Circassian diaspora abroad.

It is intended to initiate a long and complex process of reunification of the Adyghes in their historic motherland under the political and moral support of the multinational Russian people, and the modern Russian state, what is the unconditional right of the Adyghes people.

In this regard, we reiterate our Appeal to the President of the Russian Federation and the Russian Federal Assembly regarding the resolution "On recognition of the genocide of Circassians by the Russian Empire during the Caucasian War."

In the context of preparations for the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi, the Circassian genocide subjects received a new highly politicized impetus in public debates.

Meanwhile, the fundamental principles of Olympism enshrined in the Olympic Charter exclude any possibility of connection with the Olympic Games with political issues. In this context, we state that the Olympic Charter rejects any form of politicization of the Olympic Games with defining the purpose of Olympism the service of sports to harmonious development of man, fostering a peaceful society, which takes care of the preservation of human dignity, the triumph of human values.

The problem of recognition of the genocide of the Adyghes (the Circassians) by the Russian Empire in 1763 - 1864, being essentially a political problem, cannot be intrinsically linked with the Olympic Charter, the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi.

Another aspect of the problem is the cultural program of the Olympic Games. Its objective is demonstration the cultural diversity of the country organizer of the games for the international community, outstanding achievements in various fields of social life, including the demonstration of the achievements of the indigenous population of the region of the Olympic Games.

The international experience of the Olympic Games in regions that are associated with the autochthonous ethnic groups, aims to demonstrate for the international community the distinctive historical and cultural heritage. The countries of the Olympic Games traditionally put much effort to present it to the world, to demonstrate their own tolerance and willingness to take care of this or that indigenous people. This experience is of high demand during the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi.

This is our principled position, the expectations of the Russian and international Circassian community in relation to the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi.

The internal armed conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic and as the result the humanitarian crisis is the most urgent problem considered by the Russian and international Circassian community. The war has forced hundreds of thousands of Syrian citizens to leave the country. Some of the refugees from Syria, who found themselves in the neighboring countries, are Russian nationals – the Adyghes (the Circassians), the descendants of those who are forced to leave their motherland in the second half of the XIX century as a result of the Caucasian War and settled in the Middle East.

Much of the Circassian diaspora representatives of Syria has maintained their language and culture, and seek for repatriation to their historic motherland in the Russian Federation, but did not have the capability to put into practice their own desire without assistance due to a wide range of legal, humanitarian, technical and financial reasons.

On December 28, 2011 the State Council - Hase of the Republic of Adygea adopted the Appeal to the President of the Russian Federation, the Presidents of the Chamber of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation "On the provision of assistance to voluntary resettlement to the Russian Federation of compatriots - the Adyghes (the Circassians) living in the Syrian Arab Republic." The Adyghes held congresses in the Republic of Adygea, the Kabardino - Balkaria and Karachay - Circassian Republics as well as the meetings of the executive committee of the International Circassian Association took place, the executive boards of other Adyghe national social movements, whose members have worried about the plight of our compatriots in Syria, adopted the Appeal to authorities of all levels of their Republics and the Russian Federation with request to give a helping hand to the Syrian Adyghes (Circassians) in returning to their historical motherland.

Since the Appeal adoption by the State Council - Hase of the Republic of Adygea on an independent basis to the Russian Federation, not more than one thousand of compatriots have arrived. However, the humanitarian situation in Syria continues to deteriorate steadily and Russian compatriots in a significant number are in refugee camps in the third countries (in Jordan – up to three thousand, Turkey - up to two thousand, as in Lebanon, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq) without being able to come to the Russian Federation.

In particular, in March 2013 the Government of Turkey evacuated a group of Circassian refugees consisting of 178 people from Beirut and quartered it in a refugee camp in Gaziantep. The new groups of Circassian refugees are being evacuated to Turkey. The large number of the Circassian refugees from Syria, who are in refugee camps in Turkey, seek to be repatriated to the Russian Federation.

It is worth paying serious attention to the fact that the Syrian crisis is affecting the attitude of a large Circassian diaspora abroad to Russia and the Russian Circassians and other Caucasian peoples - to power. At the initial stage of the Appeal of the Circassian community of Syria to the Russian authorities, the Appeal of the State Council Hase of the Republic of Adygea to the President of the Russian Federation and the Presidents of the Chamber of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the delegation of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation with Circassian nongovernmental organizations of the Russian Federation to Syria, have given hope that Russia's participation in the fate of the Circassians of Syria. However, the practice of systemic anti-repatriation to Russia carried out by the consular and diplomatic representatives of Russia abroad and the deportation of compatriots from Russia have become available to the general public. Many compatriots are forced to leave the territory of the Russian Federation at the request of the FMS of Russia, what largely discredits the efforts of the regional authorities regarding social development and integration of the Circassian compatriots coming in Russia into the Russian socio-cultural environment.

Against the background of military action growth in Syria, the "spread" of the Circassian diaspora of Syria in the Middle East, a region of permanent instability with the active presence of the extremely radical, terrorist, extremist forces is a colossal danger of involving and sometimes forcing the Russian compatriots to participate in the international extremist and terrorist structures. The representatives of the Circassian community of Syria may be the focus of the active influence of secret services of the countries of the region, which are hostile for Russia, what in the long run is a threat to security in the North Caucasus region.

In contrast, the Circassians of Syria arrived in Russian are under the effective control of government institutions, are actively integrated into the Russian socio-cultural space. Against this background, the problem of preventing the spread of the representatives of the Circassian community of Syria over the Middle East and Turkey regions becomes urgent as well as their "gathering" in Russia under the control of the state and public institutions. Implementation of a wide range of measures of integration into the Russian socio-cultural space.

Taking into account the political, humanitarian, organizational and technical, financial aspects of this problem, it is necessary to adopt a special resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation "On the provision of assistance to voluntary resettlement to the Russian Federation of compatriots - the Adyghes (the Circassians) of the Syrian Arab Republic."

We have experience of dealing with this problem by example of implementing the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation dated July 3, 1998 N 690 "On urgent measures of state support for the resettlement of the Adyghes (the Circassians) from the Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) in the Republic of Adygea."

Also, the adoption of this resolution is due to the need to solve complex of organizational and technical, managerial, financial issues related to the voluntary resettlement of significant number of refugees to the Russian Federation, and their social arrangement and active integration into the Russian socio-cultural environment.

Politically, the attention of the Russian government to the fate of impoverished people will have a huge positive impact in the short and long term. All this, in turn, should be actively used to build strong positive co-operation with the Circassian diaspora abroad - Turkey, Jordan, Germany, the U.S., Israel, and the development and implementation of a wide range of cultural and humanitarian programs of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Circassian diaspora abroad.

In this regard, in our opinion, in order to implement the Federal Law "On the State Policy of the Russian Federation in respect of compatriots abroad," and to create the necessary conditions for national development and integration into the Russian spiritual and cultural space of the Circassian diaspora abroad it is necessary to adopt the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation " On measures of state support of the Circassian diaspora abroad", education of the interdepartmental working group on preparation of proposals related to the development of measures of state support of the Circassian diaspora, including representatives of the parties concerned, the development of the Federal target program for the development of culture, integration of the Circassian diaspora abroad into the Russian spiritual and cultural space.

Our country has the experience of dealing with this problem as an example of government support of the Russian Germans under the Federal target program.

We find that the infinite ignoring this complex of problems is counterproductive. We hope that our appeal will be treated with due care, and the raised complex of problems will be effectively solved.


OD "Adyghe Hase - Circassian Parliament"The Republic of Adygea A. Bogus

OD "Adyghe Hase - Circassian Parliament" The Karachay-Cherkess Republic M.Cherkesov

Krasnodar regional public organization "Adyghe Hase" A.Sokht


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