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From "AdygeaNatPress" edition: town authorities of Adygeya capital are going to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Maykop foundation according to the date of construction of Russian fortress in this territory - in 1857. That circumstance should cause response of the national intelligency. As the age of building the town walls on the place is estimated not in centuries, and millenia. Here is what the master of historical degree, the chief of the research department of Northern Caucasian branch of the State Museum of Oriental peoples’ arts Nurby Lovpache can say about the earliest date of the of Maykop foundation.

The most ancient monument of architecture in the territory of Maykop town is considered Maykop barrow Oshad that was dug out by N.Veselovskiy from St.-Petersburg in 1897. It represented an earthen hill with 60 m diameter and height of 11 meters. Under its embankment the tomb of the chief-priest Oshad, with timbered walls and three compartments was researched. In the tomb they found three corpses (except for the leader, two women) with rich funeral stock. The round earthen embankment at the bottom was strengthened with calcareous plates put on edge.

Now archeologists suppose the construction of Oshad’s barrow was finished in the last quarter of the IV millenium B.C. that is more than five thousand years ago. Later, around of the barrow an agrarian-astrological complex with solar sanctuaries located on the ends of beams of "rose of colors" on all the four parties of the world appeared. Those sanctuaries were kept till now on the territory of the town in the form of barrows with shaft and moats or underground stone circles. In Podgornaya Street to the south from Oshad in distance of 1600 m from it near the crossroads with Brick street - a barrow with double cromleh (stone circle) was found. On the northern beam they discovered settlement "K'oasch" in the Northeast gardens (town district) in 1,5 kilometers from Oshad. On the settlement’s territory Maykop stone plate with an ancient inscription was found. Nearby to that place there is a well-kept solar sanctuary.

On the end of the east beam, on ridge Mahoshkushkha 3 kilometers away from Oshad they also explored a solar sanctuary of the age of Oshad’s burial place. On the same beam in 1 kilometer to the east from Maykop barrow, on the second terrace of Shhaguashche (White) river between 2-nd Kurgannaya Street and 2-nd Peasant Street they studied one more solar sanctuary with double cromleh in the form of the wind rose. Under the hill of that sanctuary they dug out a burial place of poor but respected priest of the III millenium B.C.

The settlement "K'oasch" in the Northeast gardens was studied in 1964 by the joint archeologic expedition of the Adygeya scientific research institute and the Abkhazian scientific research institute. Then the sanctuary was surveyed also. Sanctuaries Mahoshkushkha and in Podgornaya street, as well as Kochipa on the second river terrace were explored in 1986 by the archeologic expedition of the Adygeya scientific research institute and the Adygeya state pedagogical institute. On the territory of Kochipa (East) they found out attributes of a settlement belonged to the Maykop archeologic culture of the III millenium B.C. that is approximately 5500 years ago. The western beam of "the wind rose" was the longest one. The solar sanctuary and ten barrows between Gaverdovsky farm and Maykop town 3,5 km away from Oshad were discovered in 1983 by the expedition of the Adygeya historical local lore study museum.

Thus, the archeologic expeditions of 1897-1986 on Maykop territory revealed a majestic cult ensemble which center was Oshad’s barrow with the burial place of the idolized ancestor. The barrow actually, served as a temple with some complex external wooden constructions that were not kept till Pr. Veselovskiy’s excavation. Together with the mentioned solar sanctuaries (which with ones situated in the town vicinities made about one and a half ten) Maykop barrow Oshad was the largest in Transkuban, and, maybe, in the Western Caucasus religious center actively functioned during the bronze epoch.

According to the historical paleographic and archeologic data of the Oriental region, in antiquity cities often arose around of religious centers. As examples to that Eridu in Mesopotamia, Arinna - Aladjagujuk in Anatolia (Turkey), Tapsok in the middle of Euphrates on the border of Turkey and Syria could serve. Like those ancient centers, around of Oshad’s barrow a city was built up. But it happened almost two thousand years later Oshad’s funeral.

About foundation of the city of Ajja or Maye during the Homeric epoch on the place of Maykop the inscription on Maykop stone plate informed. That plate was found in the Northeast suburb of the town in so-called Northeast gardens in 1960. Two years later the find was sent to Leningrad for studying and come into the hands epigraphist Turchaninov scientist of the Museum of anthropology and ethnography of the USSR. The Leningrad scientist deciphered the inscription and received the information concerned the city’s foundation happened 3200 years ago on this place.

In 1963 the Literary newspaper (Moscow) published a selection of responses to the sensational find in Maykop with the most ancient inscription in the territory of the USSR: the message of NPA, academicians N.Meshchaninov and V.Struve (Leningrad); doctor of philology N.Vinnikov; directors of the scientific research institutes of Abkhazia Dzidzaria and Adygeya M. Autlev. Now the Maykop stone plate is stored in the St.-Petersburg museum of anthropology and ethnography under the number 6.550. Turchaninov published its portrayal and photo together with the decoded text in three books: in 1971 in Leningrad, in 1991 in Arabian language in Amman, and in 1999 in Moscow. Except for that publications with critical remarks to address of Turchaninov concerned the find famous scientists of the USSR responded: linguist N.Djakonov, archeologist E.Krupnov, Adygeya archeologist P. Autlev.

Unlike Turchaninov, who read through the Maykop inscription in Abkhazian ancient language by means of Biblsky script, modern Maykop researcher N.Lovpache had read through the message about foundation of the city Maye in Hettian and received more exact date of its construction in 1200-1190 B.C. N.Lovpache's decoding was published in the newspaper "Adyghe mak" ("The Voice of Adyg") in October, 5th, 2001 (in Russian). The further archeologic, historical, paleographic and folklore studying of the history of Adygeya capital revealed continuous existence of the city complex on the place of present Maykop town. In the schematical form the information about functioning of the city center and organizers of its building looks as follows.

1. The first builder of the city Maye, according to the syllabo-hieroglyphic Hettian N.Lovpache's perusal, was Kasutava, priest of the Hettian God Hebatu, atalyk of the last Hettian tsar Supiluieum II. He built up the city, having emphasized on the river palace-defensive part. On the Maykop stone plate a drawing with the plan of the city Maye (Аjja) where in the center, probably, on the place of Oshad’s barrow a temple of crosswise design with numerous (wooden) columns was designated was placed; smithy, library in the palace not strengthened part and gardens in the northeast corner.

2. The second known head of construction of the city on the place of Maykop referred in the antique times Avhida, could be prince Hachuko – hypothetic mayor of the city Avhida in the middle of the IV century B.C. That governor occupied the right-bank heights of Psatia - Shhaguashche (White) river, and built up a fortress on the country mountain to the southeast. Information of that leader by ancient-Abasin tribe’s (Avhats) origin was received from an inscription on the little golden hood from Kurdjips barrow. L.Galanina published the portrayal of 100 signs from the hood in the book "Kurdjips Barrow" (Leningrad, 1980), and N. Lovpache decoded the inscription (ARIHR bulletin, 2004, pp. 221-240).

3. The third head and the organizer of the city construction, basically, the palace-fortress part of Avhida, i.e. Psat fortresses was a Fatey tsar Arifarn - in 309 year B.C. After his defeat in the open field battle with Bosphorus archon Satyr he receded in Psat fortress and, thoroughly having strengthened it, eventually, sustained the storm of Bosphorus warriors, achieved killing of Satyr and together with the brother of Bosphorus tsar Evmel won the war.

4. In the V-VI centuries and, especially, in the middle of the VI century A.D. during the invasion of Avarian khan Bajkan Maykop Pytapa in the bend of the river Shhaguashche (Sagvashe) was an incidental refuge and a strong point for Lavristan Hamyshey who, according to "The History of Adyheyan People" of Sh.Nogmov, headed struggle of Adygs against Avars. Great engineering works in the ancient Maykop fortresses was done at that time. Probably, in such form without special changes it reached our time (more truly, the plan of its fundamental design). During those restless times of the Great resettlement of peoples the city territory was reduced up to the river part around of Auh fortress.

5. In the end of the VIII - beginning of the IX centuries in the days of Enal Ancient Maykop Pytapa under such name (except for the known same fortress on the river Fars on the mountain Fiziabgo-2) was used by Bruhian prince Ozdemir in his struggle against Hazars’ domination and, particularly, against the deputy Hazar kagan Enal. About it was also informed in "The History of Adyheyan People".

6. The right-bank part of Maykop as the center of Minilia area was built up and used by George Piuperti in the end of the XII century. That governor, probably, was the prior of church of the Saint George which base was found out in the end of the XIX century near village Hanskaya. Plates with relief images from that church are stored in the Museum of Arts of Georgia, and some architectural details - in the National museum of Adygeya. Quite probably that at that time, following the principle of naming the city in Adygeyan language, they named the city "Minilipsa" or "Minilia".

7. During the late Middle Ages (the XIII-XVI centuries) on the place of Maykop (fortress Auh, Minilipsa) the city center even with a greater intensification of city life continued to exist. On the terraces surrounding the modern town center, were scattered small settlements and barrows. They explored one settlement in the next valley of Kurdjips river. They found out developed high-technological potter’s, metallurgical manufacture, signs of weaving, jeweler art, bone grooving, stone processing, various attributes of trade (a coin, import glass, porcelain, ceramics). If we add to it materials Belorechensky barrows of nobility, we will get a bright picture of the city life in the whole North-Caucasian representation.

From names and surnames of that time it is known two: Besleney grand prince Elzheruko Kanoko whose residence, most likely, was settled down on Laba river in the mountain part in the city of Besleney. About that it was written later, in the middle of the XVII century by Turkish traveler Evlia Cheleby. Closer to the city of Minilipsa or the latest "Helipsa" (“city”) is thought Svanian kin Aslaniani (Aslanuko), noted in an inscription on the silver scoop # 21 from Belorechensky barrow, who had some authority at that time in Abadzeh society.

8. In the middle of the XVII century Evlia Cheleby specified here district, more truly, natural boundary and the mountains "Chakal". In that term it is heard Turkic "kale" – “city” and, probably, Ubyh "Sh’a" - "cha" - a head, that is Adygeyan-Turkic "head (main) city". As Cheleby ("Book of Travel", ed. П, М., 1979) named Chakal mountains as Abkhazian, it is necessary to assume that the city was the center of the tribe "Abdzah" (Abadzeh), developed of synthesis of Abadzes (Abasin), Ubyhs and Circassians of Transkuban plane. In the archeologic materials from Kurdjips settlement in heraldic signs there Hachuko kin was noticed again. Quite probably that the craft part of the city center was ruled by a representative of that ancient Abasin kin.

9. In the middle of the XVIII century under the description of Frenchman Abri-de-la-Motre, who referred to Helipsa city on the place of Maykop as term “Helipsa” probably meant “center” or “soul” of kin - chilipsa or in Abadzehian "Helipsa". The information of the author could be read through in the book "Adygs, Balkarians and Karachais in News of European Authors of the XIII-XIX centuries”, published in Nalchik in 1974.

10. In the first half of the XIX centuries the city "Helipsa" fell into decay. On its area at that time not less than ten small "k’uadje" (auls) existed. Six of them were located on the both banks of Sagvashe, and were known from the Geographical atlas of Russia of 1905. On the left bank there were Tyganay, Daurhabl and Bagadirhabl. On the right bank except for Kozhukhhabl (Kogozh according to Kharlamov, neighbouring with a Russian redoubt in 1857), they designated Bguashehabl near to Oshad barrow and to the south, on the bank of the river - Kasyikohabl.

Besides they specified three larger k’uadje, along the second bank terrace of Sagvashe, beginning from the present infectious hospital and down to the experimental sampled farms, there were discovered smaller family hables of the farm type, settled down not further a kilometer from each other. For example, terracotta pipes testified to them - "liuls" of the mass Circassian manufacture, differed from the import ones – Turkish – with absence special (angobal) cover.

From this it follows that on the area of modern Maykop by time of construction of Russian fortress in May, 1857 significant Adygeyan population though not concentrated compactly like in European cities lived.

The fact that the strengthening of the Russian military presence at that place for Adygeyan population of Helipsa did not pass without serious consequences and blood, as it proved to be true in the military statistics of the first days, months and years of Russian redoubt’s existence. Since the time of arrival of Tenginsky military group under the command of general Kozlovsky in the natural boundary Maykop on May, 3rd, continuous fights with the mountaineers there happened. Because of incessant attacks of Circassians the Russian redoubt based under Maykop heights near Hachemziy aul (future village Egeruhaevskaya, and nowadays settlement Tulsky), was removed to the place of "the Old market" (an nonofficial name of Maykop town district) on May, 18th, 1857. From May, 20 till May, 26th there were constant storms of the fortress. With new forces they were renewed since June, 14th and proceeded till June, 25th. In May of 1958 fights under Maykop fortress were renewed.

In 1958 fights of Russian armies, basically with Abadzehs, and Mahoshes around of Maykop fortress happened monthly till the end of November. Battles took place on Kurdjips river, on rivers Fars, Seraglio, Ul – all around of Maykop. Fights around of Maykop proceeded and all 1862. It seems to be that unlike Kharlamov’s information where he told about almost peaceful foundation of Russian fortress Maykop, it actually was the longest, the most furious and bloody settling of the Russian empire in the natural boundary Maykop.

Chronicles concerned military actions in the territory of Maykop and its vicinities in 1857-1868 can be read in the histories of the Dragoon Nizhniy Novgorod division, in the diary of the Tver division Potto. But, despite of such conclusion, this event of the five years' duration in comparison to all the previous Maykop history since the ancient times looks like just one of the late episodes. That is, in the natural boundary Maykop in 1857 nothing new and unusual occurred, except for addition of Russian ethnos founded a fortress. The subsequent transformation of the fortress into town in September, 1867 was a renewal of the city center continuing the history of cities Maye (Ajja), Avhida, Auh, Minilia, Chakal, and Helipsa.


Опубликовал administrator, 11-12-2005, 00:00. Просмотров: 1184
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